Porosity evolution under increasing tension in wire-arc additively manufactured aluminum using in-situ micro-computed tomography and convolutional neural network

March 01, 2023

Runyu Zhang (1), Wei Li (1), Yuxin Jiao (1), Christopher Paniagua (1), Yao Ren (1), Hongbing Lu (1)
Scripta Materialia. Volume 225 (1 March 2023). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2022.115172


Wire-arc additively manufactured (WAAM) aluminum alloys, porosity evolution, true tensile stress, in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT), convolutional neural network (CNN)


Internal defects such as porosities are often formed in additively manufactured metal components. The pores nucleate, grow, and coalesce to form cracks under loads, leading to eventual catastrophic failure. In this paper, the full-field porosity evolution, including pore growth and coalescence in a wire-arc additively manufactured (WAAM) aluminum alloy cylinder under tension is observed with in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT). The pore size distribution, density, and tensile stress are calculated from the volumetric images analyzed by a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm, which provides rapid analysis of 12,950 slice images from μCT volumetric images at the reference state and 13 tensile strains. The results show the quantitative evolution of the growth and coalescence of macropores under tension. A strong correlation is found between the local pore volume fraction and the true tensile stress when the tensile strain is larger than 5%

How Our Software Was Used

Image segmentation was performed using Dragonfly.

Author Affiliation

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA