3D X-ray microscopy of ultrasonically welded aluminum/fiber-reinforced polymer hybrid joints

April 04, 2021

Florian Staab (1), Mario Prescher (2), Frank Balle (1,3), Lutz Kirste (2)
Materials, 14, Issue 7, April 2021: 1784. DOI: 10.3390/ma14071784


ultrasonic welding; hybrid joints; 3D X-ray microscopy; nondestructive structural analysis; fiber-reinforced polymer; segmentation by machine learning


Ultrasonically welded hybrid aluminum/fiber-reinforced PEEK joints were analyzed non-destructively with an X-ray microscope. The potential and limitations of the technology as a non-destructive testing method were investigated. For a quantitative evaluation, joints with suitable and unsuitable parameters were compared. For a further comparison, geometric modifications of the joining partners were made, and the influence on the structure and process variation of the resulting hybrid joints was examined on a microscopic level. By using a tool for 3D segmentation of the composition of the joining zone, quantitative information on volume-specific proportions couldà be obtained and compared in relation to each other.

How Our Software Was Used

Dragonfly was used for image analysis, visualization and segmentation.

Author Affiliation

(1) Walter and Ingeborg Herrmann Chair for Power Ultrasonics and Engineering of Functional Materials (EFM), Department of Sustainable Systems Engineering (INATECH), Faculty of Engineering, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany.
(2) Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), 79108 Freiburg, Germany.
(3) Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), 79104 Freiburg, Germany.